Visa Acquirer Monitoring ProgramHow Visa’s Latest Program Updates May Transform the Merchant-Acquirer Relationship

David DeCorte David DeCorte | May 24, 2024 | 9 min read

This image was created by artificial intelligence using the following prompts:

Visualize a "VISA" credit card program called "VAMP" which is a consolidated initiative that tracks acquirer activity related to fraud and chargebacks. It leverages a transaction count-based metric and a score system to offer better risk-based enforcement and improved fraud coverage, in the style of red and teal.

Visa Acquirer Monitoring Program VAMP

In a Nutshell

The Visa Acquirer Monitoring Program (VAMP) is designed to mitigate risk and enforce compliance among acquiring banks and merchants by monitoring their chargeback performance. The program focuses on identifying parties with excessive chargeback rates, and implements measures to ensure they take corrective action to reduce these rates. VAMP assesses acquirers based on specific thresholds and metrics, and those who exceed acceptable levels are subject to fines and increased scrutiny. By holding acquirers accountable, VAMP aims to maintain the integrity of the payments ecosystem and protect all stakeholders from the adverse effects of high chargeback ratios.

Important Developments for European Acquirers & Merchants: Major Updates Coming to the Visa Acquirer Monitoring Program (VAMP)

Visa maintains strict monitoring on the number of chargebacks an acquirer and their merchants are allowed to receive each month.

As a merchant, if your monthly chargeback ratio exceeds these limits, you could be forced into a chargeback monitoring program. This means incurring added fees, restrictions on your activities and, if the problem remains persistent, your bank may be forced to freeze or terminate your bank account entirely.

At least, that was the way it worked. However, with a newly announced overhaul to the Visa Acquirer Monitoring Program ( or “VAMP”) set to take effect in 2025, we will see changes which will simplify and evolve this process. This program update will transform the way both merchants and acquirers interact with the Visa risk ecosystem.

What is the Visa Acquirer Monitoring Program?

Visa Acquirer Monitoring Program

[noun]/ˈvē • zə ə • kwī • ər • ər • män • ə • dər • iNG • prō • ɡram/

The Visa Acquirer Monitoring Program (VAMP) is a consolidated initiative that tracks acquirer activity related to fraud and chargebacks. It leverages a transaction count-based metric and the Visa Account Attack Intelligence (VAAI) Score system to offer better risk-based enforcement and improved fraud coverage.

Before going into the details of the program updates, it will be helpful to have a working knowledge of the Visa Acquirer Monitoring Program.

The VAMP is designed to help acquirers, their designated agents, and merchants maintain robust controls and oversight of risk. The ultimate aim is to protect the Visa brand from undesirable fraud and chargeback activity by deterring fraudulent and compromising business practices in the Visa ecosystem.

Each month, Visa will examine the performance of acquirers and their merchants. The card network will conduct a thorough review of non-fraud disputes filed on card-not-present transactions, as well as fraud incidents and enumeration performance. Visa will gauge performance conduct on the previous month's overall sales activity.

Visa aims to collaborate with acquirers to ensure the security of the payments environment. To this end, a Visa representative may reach out to discuss the program's performance, the remediation plan, and any relevant issues to assist acquirers. Additionally, Visa provides access to a performance tracking dashboard via OneERS, enabling clients to understand the key drivers of their performance.

What's Changing?

Beginning April 1, 2025, Visa will phase out its Visa Fraud Monitoring Program (VFMP) and Visa Dispute Monitoring Program (VDMP) for merchants operating in the Visa Europe region. The Visa Acquirer Monitoring Program will be enhanced to effectively replace these two programs.

Under current Visa rules, the program thresholds are as follows:


ProgramMonthly Threshold
VDMP Early Warning0.65% chargeback ratio and 75 chargebacks
VDMP Standard0.9% chargeback ratio and 100 chargebacks
VDMP Excessive1.8% chargeback ratio and 1,000 chargebacks


ProgramMonthly Threshold
VFMP Early Warning$50,000 and 0.65% of sales value
VFMP Standard$75,000 and 0.9% of sales value
VFMP Excessive$250,000 and 1.8% of sales value


Program LevelProgram Threshold
VAMP Card-Absent Dispute Threshold750 disputes and 1% dispute ratio
VAMP Card-Absent Fraud Threshold$500,000 in card-absent fraud and 1% fraud-to-sales ratio

The revised VAMP program will feature a new transaction count-based metric based which measures reported fraud and non-fraud chargebacks together. This will be accompanied by new criteria based on confirmed enumerated transactions, identified and confirmed by the Visa Account Attack Intelligence (VAAI) Score system, rather than Risk Operations Center (ROC)-blocked transactions.

Additionally, VAMP will transition from non-compliance assessment-based enforcement to risk-based enforcement. This will provide greater flexibility for clients and accommodating varying levels of risk appetite.

Common Question What are “enumerated transactions?”

As per Visa, enumeration is “the criminal practice of submitting fraudulent card not present transactions into the payments ecosystem in order to obtain valid payment information.” An enumeration attack is closely related to card testing; a scammer will systematically submit transactions with partial cardholder information to try and identify valid data attributes. In the context of VAMP, we’re referring here to transactions submitted by merchants that are, themselves, engaged in an enumeration attack.

Revised VAMP Program Thresholds & Enforcement Levels

An acquirer is identified as being in the Visa Acquirer Monitoring Program if they meet or exceed either the new fraud and disputes ratio, or the new enumeration ratio. These are calculated as follows:

New VAMP Ratio

Count of Reported + Non-Fraud Disputes

Count of Total Sales

VAMP Enumeration Ratio

Count of Enumerated Transactions

Count of Total Sales

In the table below, we’ve outlined the current program thresholds, as well as the new thresholds set to take effect in January 2025:

Details Acquirer Merchant
Above Standard Excessive Excessive Excessive
VAMP Ratio VAMP Ratio VAMP Ratio Enumeration Ratio
Threshold Effective Date: April 1st, 2025 N/A greater than 0.5% greater than 1.5% greater than 20%
Threshold Effective Date: January 1st, 2026 greater than 0.3%, but less than 0.5% greater than 0.5% greater than 0.9% greater than 20%
Additional Criteria
  • Only card-absent, domestic and cross-border VisaNet transactions are considered for VAMP.
  • A monthly minimum of 1,000 combined fraud and non-fraud disputes applies to acquirer and merchant thresholds.
  • Threshold calculations include non-fraud Dispute Condition Codes 11, 12 and 13.
  • VAMP excludes Rapid Dispute Resolution (RDR) disputes and Cardholder Dispute Resolution Network (CDRN).
  • VAMP excludes confirmed Compelling Evidence 3.0 except for fraud disputes.
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Acquirers who surpass the identification thresholds are flagged for the VAMP and are required to take corrective actions. VAMP identifies two levels of performance issues:

Chargeback Analyst

“Above Standard” Level

This level signifies a notable rise in fraud, dispute, or enumeration activities compared to market standards. Acquirers identified at this level must take investigative action and demonstrate remediation steps to bring the performance within the program tolerance.

Visa monitors these activities within the acquirer’s portfolio to ensure compliance.

Chargeback Manager

“Excessive” Level

This level represents the most severe increase in fraud, dispute, or enumeration activities relative to market standards. Visa will take an interest in the performance of individual merchants within an acquirer’s portfolio. Merchant descriptors may be grouped to identify and analyze larger or group type merchants. Visa will also deploy strategies to analyze the performance of payment facilitators and other players.

Identified acquirers will receive notification of their status from Visa and are expected to make a response. This notification will explain:

  • The reason for the identification
  • Response timeline
  • Consequences for noncompliance
  • Best practices (when applicable)

In response, acquirers must enhance their risk control environment and address the issues that led to their identification. They are required to submit a remediation plan within 15 calendar days that addresses the root causes of the performance issues.

What Do Merchants & Acquirers Need to Do?

In short: make sure you’re using all the tools at your disposal.

The Visa Acquirer Monitoring Program is built to encourage merchants to take advantage of Visa and Verifi’s dispute management services. Any dispute resolved through Verifi CDRN or Visa Rapid Dispute Resolution (RDR) will be exempt from impacting Visa monitoring ratios. This covers Order Insight and Compelling Evidence 3.0, as well as resolved TC40 notices via CDRN or RDR.


These changes only impact merchants and acquirers operating in the Europe region. As of this writing, these changes are not scheduled to take effect for other markets, like the US.

What Do These Changes Mean For Merchants?

At present, all chargebacks count against your chargeback ratio. Even if you refund a dispute to prevent a chargeback, it can still adversely affect your fraud-to-sales ratio and/or dispute-to-sales ratio. Plus, like we mentioned above, you will face higher processing fees and penalties if either of those indicators surpass a specific limit.

VAMP will offer European merchants a way to avoid the restrictions associated with VDMP and VFMP, provided disputes are resolved through designated Visa and Verifi channels. It will also lead to enhanced fraud coverage across the ecosystem.

What do these changes mean for Acquirers?

The VAMP program aims to assist acquirers in managing the levels of risk, fraud, and disputes in their portfolio.

These changes give acquirers more flexibility to manage their overall portfolio. It also enhances their ability to manage and maintain effective oversight of individual merchants.

Common QuestionWhat does VAMP cost acquirers and merchants?Visa will assess a charge for each fraud or chargeback event connected to a transaction found to be in the “above standard” or “excessive” category. There will be a different fee applied to each event dependent on the level of the program.

In Conclusion...

After April 1, 2025, tools like CDRN, RDR, and Order Insight with CE3.0 will be more crucial than ever in helping Visa Europe merchants minimize dispute exposure. Moreover, resolving disputes through these platforms will not invite penalties.

Merchants can also expect additional benefits like increased authorization rates and lower reserve requirements owing to reduced dispute ratios.

The changes to the VAMP represent a significant evolution in compliance activity associated with dispute management. Our European clients can look forward to the same protective measures offered by our integrated tools of CDRN, RDR, and Order Insight, but now with additional flexibility in managing their processing ratios courtesy of VAMP.

Not currently using tools like CDRN or RDR? You’re leaving money on the table. Talk to one of our experts today to get started and see your fraud and chargeback liability shrink by as much as 90% overnight.


What is an acquirer chargeback monitoring program?

The Visa Acquirer Monitoring Program is a system implemented by Visa to track and manage the frequency and volume of chargebacks incurred by merchants and acquirers. It aims to identify high-risk merchants and reduce fraudulent activities by setting thresholds and corrective measures.

What is the Visa RDR program?

The Visa Risk Dispute Resolution (RDR) program is an initiative designed to streamline the dispute resolution process for chargebacks. It aims to reduce chargeback rates by implementing a clear framework for identifying and addressing fraudulent or erroneous transactions.

What is the threshold for Visa chargebacks?

The threshold for Visa chargebacks is typically set at 0.9% of the total number of transactions processed and 100 chargebacks in a calendar month. Exceeding this threshold may result in the merchant entering a chargeback monitoring program where additional scrutiny and corrective actions will be enforced.

David DeCorte


David DeCorte

David DeCorte is the Content Manager at Chargebacks911. He is the primary editor of the Chargebacks911 blog, and also writes and edits much of the material published offsite by the company. His work has been featured in numerous industry publications including Mashable, Business2Community, Fintech Futures, and more. David graduated from the University of South Florida with a degree in Creative Writing.

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